Re-thinking STARLIMS architecture

Re-thinking STARLIMS architecture

There is something about STARLIMS that has been bugging me for a long time. Don’t get me wrong – I think it is a great platform. I just question the wellness of XFD in 2024, and the selection of Sencha for the HTML part of it.

But an even more critical point: I question the principle of using the same server for the “backend” and the “frontend”. Really, the current architecture of STARLIMS (in a simplified way) is something like this:

Sure, you can add load balancers, multiple servers, batch processors… But ultimately, the Server’s role is both backend and Web Rendering, without really following Server-Side-Rendering (SSR) pattern. It hosts / provides the code to render from backend and let client do rendering. So, in fact, it is Client-Side-Rendering (CSR) with most of the SSR drawbacks.

This got me thinking. What if we really decoupled the front end from the backend? And what if we made this using real micro services? You know, something like this:

Let me explain the layers.


React does not need presentation. The infamous open-source platform behind Facebook. Very fast and easy, huge community… Even all the AI chatbot will generate good React components if you ask nicely! For security, it’s like any other platform; it’s as secure as you make it. And if you pair it with Node.js, then it’s very easy, which brings me to the next component…


Another one in no need of presentation. JavaScript on a backend? Nice! And there, on one end, you handle the session & security (with React) and communicate with STARLIMS through the out of the box REST API. Node can be just a proxy to STARLIMS (it is the case currently) but should also be leveraged to extend the REST APIs. It is a lot easier to implement new APIs and connect to STARLIMS (or anything else for that matter!) and speed up the process. Plus, you easily get cool stuff like WebSockets if you want, and you can cache some reference data in Redis to go even faster!…


Fast / lightweight / free cache (well, it was when I started). I currently use it only for sessions; since REST API is stateless in STARLIMS, I manage the sessions in Node.js, and store them in Redis, which allows me to spin multiple Node.js instances (load balancing?) and share sessions across. If you don’t need to spin multiple proxy, you don’t need this. But heh, it’s cooler with it, no?

I was thinking (I haven’t done anything about this yet) to have a cron job running in Node.js to pull reference data from STARLIMS (like test plans, tests, analytes, specifications, methods, etc) periodically and update Redis cache. Some of that data could be used in the UI (React.js) instead of hitting STARLIMS. But now, with the updated Redis license, I don’t know. I think it is fine in these circumstances, but I would need to verify.


Because I can! – Michel R.

Well, just because. I was learning these technologies, had this idea, and I just decided to test the theory. So, I tried. And it looks like it works! There are multiple theoretical advantages to this approach:

  1. Performance: Very fast (and potentially responsive) UI.
  2. Technology: New technology availability (websockets, data in movement, streaming, etc.).
  3. Integration: API first paradigm, Node.js can make it really easy to integrate with any technology!
  4. Source control: 100% Git for UI code, opening all git concepts (push, pull requests, merge, releases, packages, etc.).
  5. Optimization: Reduce resource consumption from STARLIMS web servers.
  6. Scalability: High scalability through containerization and micro-services.
  7. Pattern: Separation of concerns. Each component does what its best at.
  8. Hiring – there is a higher availability of React.js and Node.js developers than STARLIMS developers!

Here’s some screenshots of what it can look like:

As you can see, at this stage, it is very limited. But it does work, and I like a couple of ideas / features I thought of, like the F1 for Help, the keyboard shortcuts support, and more importantly, the speed… It is snappy. In fact, the speed is limited to what the STARLIMS REST API can provide when getting data, but otherwise, everything else is way, way faster than what I’m used to.

How does it work, really?

This is magic! – Michel R.

Magic! … No, really, I somewhat “cheated”. I implemented a Generic API in the STARLIMS REST API. This endpoint supports both ExecFunction and RunDS, as well as impersonation. Considering that the REST API of STARLIMS is quite secure (it uses anti-tampering patterns, you can ask them to explain that to you if you want) and reliable, I created a generic endpoint. It receives a payload containing the script (or datasource) to run, with the parameters, and it returns the original data in JSON format.

Therefore, in React, you would write code very similar to lims.CallServer(scriptName, parameters) in XFD/Sencha.

Me being paranoid, I added a “whitelisting” feature to my generic API, so you can whitelist which scripts to allow running through the API. Being lazy, I added another script that does exactly the same, without the whitelisting, just so I wouldn’t have to whitelist everything; but hey, if you want that level of control… Why not?


My non-scientific observations are that this works quite well. The interface is snappy (a lot faster than even Sencha), and developing new views is somewhat easier than both technologies as well.

Tip: you can just ask an AI to generate a view in React using, let’s say, bootstrap 5 classNames, and perhaps placeholders to call your api endpoints, et voilà! you have something 90% ready.

Or you learn React and Vite and you build something yourself, your own components, and create yourself your own STARLIMS runtime (kind-of).

This whole experiment was quite fun, and I learned a ton. I think there might actually be something to do with it. I invite you to take a look at the repositories, which I decided to create a public version of for anyone to use and contribute under MIT with commercial restrictions license:

You need to have both projects to get this working. I recommend you check both README to begin with.

Right now, I am parking this project, but if you would like to learn more, want to evaluate this but need guidance, or are interested in actually using this in production, feel free to drop me an email at [email protected]! Who knows what happens next?

Open up STARLIMS with its REST API!

Open up STARLIMS with its REST API!

Alright folks, I was recently involved in other LIMS integrations and one pattern that is very much alike is a “click this functionality to enable the equivalent API” approach. Basically, by module, you decide what can be exposed or not. And then, by role or by user (or lab, of all of that), you grant consuming rights.

It got me thinking “heh, STARLIMS used to do that with the generic.asmx web service”. RunAction and RunActionDirect anyone?

So, that’s just what I did, for fun, but also thinking that if I’d go around re-writing routing and scripts for every single functionalities, that would be a total waste of time. Now, don’t get me wrong! Like everything, I think that it depends.

You can (and should) expose only bits and pieces you need to expose, unless your plan is to use STARLIMS as a backend mostly and integrate most (if not all) of the features to external systems (those of you who you want a React or Angular front end, that’s you!).

So, if you’re in the later group, take into consideration security. You will want to set the RestApi_DevMode setting to false STARLIMS’ web.config file. This is to ensure that all communication is hashed using MD5 and not tampered with. Then, of course, you’ll check https and all these things. This is out of scope, but still worthy of note.

Once that’s done, you need 2 pieces.

  1. You need to define a route. Personnally, I used the route /v1/generic/action . If you don’t know how to do that, I wrote and article on the topic.
  2. You need a script to do all of this! Here’s the simplified code:
	:PARAMETERS payload;
	:IF payload:IsProperty("action") .and. !Empty(payload:action);
		:DECLARE response;
		response := CreateUdObject();
		response:StatusCode := 200;
		response:Response := CreateUdObject();
		response:Response:data := "";
		:IF payload:IsProperty("parameters") .and. !Empty(payload:parameters);
			response:Response:data := ExecFunction(payload:action, payload:parameters);
			response:Response:data := ExecFunction(payload:action);
		:RETURN response;
		:DECLARE response;
		response := CreateUdObject();
		response:StatusCode := 400;
		response:Response := CreateUdObject();
		response:Response:message := "invalid action/parameters";
		:RETURN response;

In my case, I went a little bit more fancy by adding an impersonation mechanism so the code would “run as”. You could add some authorization on which scripts can be ran, by who, when, etc. Just do it at the beginning, and the return a 403 forbidden response if execution is denied.

Yeah, I know, this is not rocket science, and this is not necessarily the most secure approach. In fact, this really opens up your STARLIMS instance to ANY integration from a third party software… But, as I mentioned in the beginning, maybe that’s what you want?

NB: I used DALL·E 2 ( to generate the image on the front page using “STARLIMS logo ripped open”. I had to try!


Alright folks! If you’ve been playing with the new STARLIMS REST API and tried production mode, perhaps you’ve run into all kind of problems providing the correct SL-API-Signature header. You may wonder “but how do I generate this?” – even following STARLIMS’s c# example may yield unexpected 401 results.

At least, it did for me.

I was able to figure it out by looking at the code that reconstructs the signature on STARLIMS side, and here’s a snippet of code that works in POSTMAN as a pre-request code:

// required for the hash part. You don't need to install anything, it is included in POSTMAN
var CryptoJS = require("crypto-js");

// get data required for API signature
const dateNow = new Date().toISOString();
// thhis is the API secret found in STARLIMS key management
const privateKey = pm.environment.get('SL-API-secret');
// this is the API access key found in STARLIMS key management
const accessKey = pm.environment.get('SL-API-Auth');
// in my case, I have a {{url}} variable, but this should be the full URL to your API endpoint
const url = pm.environment.get('url') + request.url.substring(8);
const method = request.method;
// I am not using api methods, but if you are, this should be set
const apiMethod = "";

var body = "";
if (pm.request.body.raw){
    body = pm.request.body.raw;

// this is  the reconstruction part - the text used for signature
const signatureBase = `${url}\n${method}\n${accessKey}\n${apiMethod}\n${dateNow}\n${body}`;

// encrype signature
var data = CryptoJS.enc.Utf8.parse(signatureBase);
const hash = CryptoJS.HmacSHA256(data, privateKey);
const encodedHash = encodeURIComponent(CryptoJS.enc.Base64.stringify(hash));

// set global variables used in header
pm.globals.set("SL-API-Timestamp", dateNow);
pm.globals.set("SL-API-Signature", encodedHash);

One point of interest – if it still is not working, and if you can’t figure out why, an undocumented STARLIMS feature is to add this application setting in the web.config to view more info:

<add key="RestApi_LogLevel" value="Debug" />

I hope this helps you use the new REST API provided by STARLIMS!


STARLIMS REST API – Add and Route your own endpoints

With the version 12 technology platform, STARLIMS offers a new REST API engine. It is really great – until you want to enhance it and add your own endpoints. That’s where it gets … complicated. Well – not so much – if you know where to start. Nothing here is hidden information, it is all written in the technology release documentation; just not easily applied.

If you read the doc, you’ve read something like this:

Routing maps incoming HTTP API requests to their implementation. If you are a Core Product team, you must implement routing in pre-defined Server Script API_Helper.RestApiRouter; if you are a Professional Services or Customer team, you must implement routing in pre-defined Server Script API_Helper_Custom.RestApiRouter (which you need to create, if it doesn’t exist).

STARLIMS Technology Platform Documentation
09-016-00-02 REV AB

That section is accessible using the /building_rest_api.html Url of the platform documentation.

It is really good, and it works, and everything listed is appropriate. I would only add 2 points for your sanity.

1- handle your routes in a different way than what STARLIMS suggest. Their example is very simple, but you’ll want to have something scalable / reusable. I went with a single function and nested hashtables. By default, the custom routing needs a Route method. To “store” the route, I’ll also add a private getRoutes method. In the future, we’ll only add entries in the getRoutes, which will simplify our life.

:PROCEDURE getRoutes;

		structure is:
		hashTable of version
			hashTable of of service
				hashTable of entity
	:DECLARE hApiVersions;
	/* all route definition should be in lowercase;
	/* store API Verions at 1st htable level;
	hApiVersions := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	hApiVersions["v1"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	hApiVersions["v2"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	/* store each service within the proper version;
	hApiVersions["v1"]["examples"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	/* then store each endpoint per entity;
	hApiVersions["v1"]["examples"]["simple"] := "API_Examples_v1.Simple";

	/* store each service within the proper version;
	hApiVersions["v1"]["system"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	hApiVersions["v1"]["system"]["status"] := "API_CustomSystem_v1.status";
	/* process-locks endpoints;
	hApiVersions["v1"]["process-locks"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	hApiVersions["v1"]["process-locks"]["process"] := "API_ProcessLocks_v1.Process";
	/* user-management endpoints;
	hApiVersions["v1"]["user-management"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	hApiVersions["v1"]["user-management"]["user-session"] := "API_UserManagement_v1.UserSession";
	hApiVersions["v1"]["sqs"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	hApiVersions["v1"]["sqs"]["message-queue"] := "API_SQS_v1.message";

	hApiVersions["v1"]["load"] := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Collections.Hashtable");
	hApiVersions["v1"]["load"]["encrypt"] := "API_Load_v1.encrypt";
	hApiVersions["v1"]["load"]["origrec"] := "API_Load_v1.origrec";

	:RETURN hApiVersions;

	:PARAMETERS routingInfo;
	/* 	routingInfo
			.Version : string - e.g. "v1"
			.Service : string - e.g. "folderlogin"
			.Entity : string - e.g. "sample";
	:DECLARE hRoutesDef, sVersion, sService, sEntity;
	hRoutesDef := Me:getRoutes();
	/* remove case route;
	sVersion := Lower(routingInfo:Version);
	sService := Lower(routingInfo:Service);
	sEntity := Lower(routingInfo:Entity);
	:IF !Empty(hRoutesDef[sVersion]);
		:IF !Empty(hRoutesDef[sVersion][sService]);
			:RETURN hRoutesDef[sVersion][sService][sEntity];
	:RETURN "";

When you need to add new routes, all you do is add new lines to the getRoutes method, the logic in the Route method is static and shouldn’t change. Then, you create the corresponding categories and scripts to actually run your logic, and you’re set.

Of course, you can build your own mechanism – it is by no mean the best one; but I do find it to be easier to manage than STARLIMS’ suggestion.

Now, I know: you might be tempted to write a generic data-driven routing. I was tempted to do it. In the end, it is a balance between convenience and security. If you let it be data-driven, you loose control on what can be routed. Someone may modify the route to, let’s say, get result, to instead return all user information, and you wouldn’t know. If it’s in the code, then you’ll know. So – although it is not as convenient, don’t get your routes handled by the database. It would also add extra load on the database. So – no good reasons other than convenience, really.

2- properly document your APIs. Heck, document your APIs before you implement them! I recommend to generate some .yaml files. Trust me: whoever will be consuming your API will thank you!

All in all, I think the STARLIMS REST API really brings the system to an all new level. Theoretically, one could build a full UI stack using React or Angular and just consume the API to run the system on a new front end.

Or one could expose data endpoints for pipelines to maintain a data mart.

Or anything. At this point, your creativity is the limiting factor. Do you have great ideas for use cases?

JMeter + STARLIMS for load testing

JMeter + STARLIMS for load testing

JMeter is a load / stress tool built in Java which allows you to simulate multiple user connections to your system and monitor how the application & hardware response to heavy load.

In STARLIMS, I find it is a very good tool for performance optimization. One can detect redundant calls, chatty pieces of code and identify bottlenecks, even when running with a single user.

As a bonus, Microsoft has a preview version of load tests based on JMeter, which can be integrated to your CI/CD process!

So, in this article, my goal is to help you get started – once setup, it’s very easy to do.

I will proceed with the following assumptions:

  • You know your way around STARLIMS
  • You have some scripting knowledge
  • Your STARLIMS version is 12.1 or + (I leverage the REST API introduced with 12.1. It is possible to do differently, but that will be out of scope)
  • Xfd is the most difficult technology for this. Therefore, that’s what I will tackle. If you are running on HTML, it will be just easier, good for you!

Environment Setup

On your local PC

  • Install Java Runtime – you might have to reboot. Don’t worry, I’m not going anywhere!
  • Download JMeter and extract it somewhere (remember where!)
  • Make sure you have access to setting up a Manual Proxy. This can be tricky and may require your administrators to enable this for you. What you’ll want is to be able to toggle it like this (don’t enable it just yet! Just verify you can):
Proxy Setup

On your STARLIMS Server

  • Make it available through HTTP. Yes, you have read properly, HTTP. Not HTTPS. I think it can work HTTPS, but I ran into too much problems and found out HTTP is easiest. This is to simplify traffic recording when recording a scenario for re-processing.
  • Create your load users. If you expect to run 100 simultaneous users, then let’s create 100! What I did is create users named LOADUSER001 to LOADUSER250 (so I would have 250 users) and have their password to something silly like #LoadUser001 to #LoadUser250. Like I said – don’t do this if there’s any sensitive data in your system.
  • To help you, here’s a script to generate the users:
:RETURN SubmitToBatch("LoadTestPrep.UserCreator.ASync", { 100 });

:PARAMETERS nNumberOfUsers;
:DEFAULT nNumberOfUsers, 1;

:DECLARE sUserName, sOldPassword, sNewPassword, i, nOrigrec, oNewUser, aUserDetails, pwEncOld, pwEncNew;
resp := "nothing yet";
:FOR i := 1 :TO nNumberOfUsers;	
	oNewUser := CreateUdObject();
	oNewUser:USRNAM := "LOADUSER" + StrZero(i, 4,0);
	oNewUser:FULLNAME := "Load User " + StrZero(i, 4,0);
	oNewUser:JOBDESCRIPTION := "Load Test";
	oNewUser:EMAIL := "user" + StrZero(i,4,0) + "";
	oNewUser:LANGID := "ENG";
	oNewUser:POWERUSER := "Y";
	oNewUser:TREEAUTH := { "L" };
	oNewUser:RASCLIENTID := "Internal";
	oNewUser:DEPTLIST := "Changzhou";
	oNewUser:QUESTION_ID := 1;
    oNewUser:ANSWER := "1234";
    oNewUser:CONFIRMANSWER := "1234";
    oNewUser:PIN := "1234";	
	oNewUser:Id := "UserManagement.newUserModel-" + LimsString(i);
	UsrMes("Processing " + oNewUser:USRNAM);
	resp := ExecFunction("UserManagement.createNewUser", { oNewUser });
	resp := "User " + oNewUser:USRNAM + " does not exist";
	nOrigrec := LSearch("select ORIGREC from USERS where USRNAM = ?", 0, "DATABASE", { oNewUser:USRNAM });
	:IF nOrigrec > 0;
		aUserDetails := {
		pwEncOld := "#LoadUsr" + StrZero(i, 4, 0);
		pwEncNew := "#LoadUser" + StrZero(i, 4, 0);
		ExecFunction("UserManagement.saveUserDetails", { NIL, "USERS", aUserDetails, nOrigrec });
		ExecFunction("Security_Module.ChangePassword", { oNewUser:USRNAM, "NEW", pwEncOld });
		ExecFunction("Security_Module.ChangePassword", { oNewUser:USRNAM, "", pwEncNew });
		resp := ExecFunction("UserManagement.updateHTMLUserSecurityInformation", {NIL,"USERS",{{"PWEXPD",Now():AddYears(100),"D",Now()}},nOrigrec,{}});

UsrMes( "Done" );

You will need to test the above, on my system it worked fine (haha!) but setting password and security is not always working as expected in STARLIMS; so do not despair – just be patient.

  • Edit the web.config file. I will presume you know which one and how to achieve that. You need to change / add the following appSetting to false: <appSetting name="TamperProofCommunication" value="false" />
  • Add Endpoint to Encrypt function. That’s really the tricky part. In both XFD and HTML, STARLIMS “masks” the username and password when putting it in the payload for authentication, to prevent sending in clear text. But this encryption is significant; it is part of .NET and not easily integrated to JMeter… Unless it becomes a REST API endpoint!.
  • So, in a nutshell, the trick is to create a new API Endpoint that receives a string and a key, and call the EncryptData(text, key) function, and return the encrypted string. I will not stress it enough: do – not – enable – this – on – a -system – with – sensitive – data. And make sure you will only use load testing users. If you do so, you’re fine.

This is the code of the REST API method to expose from STARLIMS:

:PARAMETERS payload;
:DECLARE response;

response := CreateUdObject();
response:StatusCode := Me:HTTP_SUCCESS;
response:Response := CreateUdObject();
:IF payload:IsProperty("text") .and. payload:IsProperty("pw");
    :DECLARE t, p, secret;
    t := limsString(payload:text);
    p := limsString(payload:pw);
    secret := EncryptData(t, p);
    response:Response:message := secret;
    response:Response:message := "Missing data";
    response:StatusCode := 500;

:RETURN response;

Since it gets exposed as a REST API, the concept is that at the beginning of the load test, for every user, we call this with the username and the password to get the encrypted version of each, which allows us to tap into STARLIMS cookie / session mechanism. Magic!

Now, we are kind of ready – assuming you’ve followed along and got everything setup properly and were able to test your API with POSTMAN or something like that. Before moving on, let’s take a look at a typical load test plan in JMeter:

Typical setup for a single scenario

The idea is we want each user (thread) to run in its own “session”. And we want each session to be for a different user. My scenarios always involve a user login into STARLIMS once (to create a session) and the to loop on running the scenario (for example, one scenario could be aboout creating folders, another scenario about entering results, etc.) . I will leave to you the details of the test plans, but the idea is you first need to login the system, then do something.

At the level of the test plan, let’s add user-defined variables – in my case, this is only so I can switch STARLIMS instances later on (I strongly recommend you do that!):

User-defined Variables

Always at the level of the test plan, add a counter:

User Counter

This will be the magic for multiple users. Note the number format – this has to match your user naming convention, otherwise, good luck!

Now, let’s have our user login STARLIMS.

  1. Add a Transaction Controller to the Thread Group. I renamed this one “System Login” – call it what you want.
  2. On your new transaction controller, add a Sampler > HTTP Request, which will be our call to the REST API
HTTP Request – REST API for Encrypt method

As you can see, I did a few more things than just call the API. If we break it down, I have a pre-processor “Initialize User Variables”, a HTTP Header Manager, and a JSON Extractor. Let’s look at each of these.

Pre-processor – Initialize User Variables (Beanshell preprocessor)

This will run before this call is made – every time this call is made! This is where we initialize more variables we can use in the thread.

currentUser = "LOADUSER" + "${un}";
s = "000" + "${un}";
v = s.split("");
s = s.substring(v.length - 4);
currentPw = "#LoadUser" + s;
vars.put("currentUser", currentUser);
vars.put("currentPW", currentPw);
vars.put("startFolderNo", "LT22-000" + "${un}");"Current User: " + currentUser);

This will initialize the currentUser and currentPW variables we can reuse later on. Since this is a pre-processor, it means the request can reference them:

Now, let’s look at the HTTP Header Manager:

HTTP Header Manager – System Login

Pretty simple – if you have STARLIMS 12.1 or +, you just need to get yourself an API key in the RestApi application. Otherwise, this whole part might have to be adjusted according to your prefered way of calling STARLIMS. But, long story short, SL-API-Auth is the header you want, and the value should be your STARLIMS secret API key.

Finally, this API will return something (the encoded string). So we need to store it in yet another variable! Simple enough, we use a post-processor JSON extractor:

JSON Extractor

What did we just do? Here’s a breakdown:

  1. Initialized a user name and password in variables
  2. Constructed a HTTP request with these 2 variables
  3. Called the REST API with our secret STARLIMS key using this request
  4. Parsed the JSON response into another variable

If you have set the thread group to simulate 10 users, then you’ll have LOADUSER001 to LOADUSER010 initialized. This is the pattern to learn. This is what we’ll be doing all along.

Wait. How did you know what to call afterward?

Great question! That’s where the proxy gets into play. Now, we don’t want to go around and guess all the calls, and, although I like Fiddler, I think it would be very complicated to use.

In a nutshell, this is what we’ll do:

  1. We’ll add a Recording Controller to our Thread Group
    1. Right-click on your Thread Group > Add > Logic Controller > Recording Controller
  2. We’ll add a Test Script Recorder to our Test Plan
    1. Right-click on your Test Plan > Add > Non-Test Elements > HTTP(S) Test Script Recorder
    2. Change the Target Controller to your recording Controller above, so you know where the calls will go
  3. We’ll activate the proxy (bye bye internet!)
    1. Open Windows Settings
    2. Look for Proxy
    3. Change Manual Proxy > Use a proxy server to on.
    4. Local Address = http://localhost
    5. Port = 8888
    6. Click Save! I didn’t realize at first there was a save button for this…
  4. We’ll start the Test Script Recorder
Test Script Recorder
  1. We’ll peform our action in STARLIMS
    1. WARNING: A good practice is to change the value of Transaction name in the Recorder Transactions Control as you progress. What I typically do is put SYSTEM_LOGIN while I launch STARLIMS. Then SYSTEM_LOGIN/VALIDATE when I enter credentials, then SYSTEM_LOGIN/OK when I click OK, etc.
    2. If all works well, you should see items being added to your Transaction Recorder.
  2. We’ll stop the Test Script Recorder – just click on the big red Stop
  3. We’ll deactivate the proxy (yay!) – just toggle it off.

You should have something like this in your recorder:

Recorded HTTP Requests

If, like me, you let your Outlook opened, you will have all kind of unrelated HTTP calls. Just select these and delete them. You should be left with something like this:

After 1st cleanup

Now, let’s understand what happened here. We recorded all the calls to STARLIMS. If you wish, you can remove the GetImageById lines – typically, this should not have any performance impact as these should be cached. But heh, that’s your call.

Let’s look at the 1st request:

1st HTTP Request

Interestingly enough, we can see the Protocol is http, and the Server Name is our STARLIMS server. If you created user defined variables, then you can just clean these 2 fields up (make them empty). We can default them at the test plan level (later on). But if you do that, you must do it for all requests! So, let’s not do this (just yet). Let’s leave it as is.

Now, what we want, is to re-run this so we can have actual data to work with and to make our script dynamic. But we need to record all the requests sent and received.

Right-click on your Thread Group > Add > Listener > View Results Tree

I find this listener to be the best for this activity.

Now, let’s run this “as is” clicking the play button


The beauty here is you can get the data sent to STARLIMS as well as the responses, allowing us to understand how everything is connected. Let’s take a look at the Authentication.GetUserInfo – that’s our first challenge:

View Results Tree

If you look at the Request Body, you’ll see your user name (which you used to login), as well as a 2nd very strange parameter that looks like the above highlighted string in kind of pink. Now, when we log into STARLIMS, we must send that string, which, essentially, is the password hash based on the user name (one-way encoding). So the question is: how do we get this? This is where our REST API, which we prepared earlier, comes into play!

Hook user variables to payload

With this, you can do everything now! Well, as far as load testing is concerned, it can at least get you started!

Earlier, I mentioned you shouldn’t leave your Server name / path / protocol in there. Indeed, in my screenshot above, you can see it’s all empty. This is because I added a HTTP Request Default to my test plan:

HTTP Request Default

You’ll also want a HTTP Cookie Manager. This one doesn’t need configuration as far as I know; but it must exist so cookies are carried over.


What?? Conclusion already? But we were just getting started! Well, don’t worry. I have done a little bit more than just that, and I am including it with this post.

You can get a semi-working test plan here.

You will need to figure out a few things, like some of the APIs I use and some forms/scripts that you won’t have. But this should give you a very good overview of how it works and how it is all tied in together.

As a side note, the reason I got involved into this was caused by Microsoft adding JMeter as part of the tools in their load test preview!

Hope you find good use to this!

STARLIMS + Azure Blob containers through SAS

STARLIMS + Azure Blob containers through SAS

Here is a funny story.

Here I was trying, with the infra team, to access my Azure container through SAS. STARLIMS has a built-in Azure container support, but it relies on a connection string with account information and all. But, like most Azure customers, that is not our reality. We use shared containers, so we need a SAS token… Which is not supported to configure as a STARLIMS connection string.

This means that next step will be any other web service consumption instead of direct containers access. Is it complex? Less than I expected!

Step 1: let’s get a SAS token!

Now, finding the said token is not always obvious, but mine looked something like this:


Hopefully, yours too! In the Azure Container tool, look for the “Shared Access Signature”, it’s the same thing.

Step 2 – integrate the Azure API!

Now, how do we put files there? The connection string and tutorials on STARLIMS will not help… But the web services will! All we need to do is write a UploadToAzureBlob procedure and a DownloadFromAzureBlob procedure (both in SSL) and that will do the trick:

:PROCEDURE UploadToAzureBlob;
:PARAMETERS content, fileName;

:DECLARE    sasToken, storageAccount, containerName, method, sampleContent,
            contentLength, requestUri, oWebService, oClient, oRequest, innerRequest,
            stream, resp, encoding;

encoding := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Text.Encoding",, .T.);

sasToken := "yourSASToken";
storageAccount := "yourAccountName";
containerName := "yourContainerName";
blobName := fileName; /* can be something like folder/subfolder/name.ext ;

method := "PUT";
sampleContent := content;
contentLength := encoding:UTF8:GetByteCount(sampleContent);

requestUri := Replace(Replace(Replace(Replace(
                        "{storageAccount}", storageAccount),
                        "{containerName}", containerName),
                        "{blobName}", blobName),
                        "{sasToken}", sasToken);

oWebService := WebServices{};
oClient := oWebService:CreateHttpClient();
oRequest := oClient:CreateHttpRequest(requestUri);

oRequest:Method := method;
oRequest:ContentType := "text/plain; charset=UTF-8";
oRequest:ContentLength := contentLength;

innerRequest := DoProc("GetInnerRequest", { oRequest });
innerRequest:Headers:Add("x-ms-blob-type", "BlockBlob");
stream := innerRequest:GetRequestStream();
stream:Write(encoding:UTF8:GetBytes(sampleContent), 0, contentLength);

resp := innerRequest:GetResponse();
:RETURN resp:StatusCode;


And then you create the GetFromAzureBlob to retrieve the file in a similar fashion:

:PROCEDURE GetFromAzureBlob;
:PARAMETERS remoteFile;

:DECLARE    sasToken, storageAccount, containerName, method, sampleContent,
            contentLength, requestUri, oWebService, oClient, oRequest, innerRequest,
            stream, resp, encoding, sTmpFileName;

encoding := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Text.Encoding",, .T.);

sasToken := "yourSAStoken";
storageAccount := "yourAzureAccount";
containerName := "yourAzureContainer";
blobName := remoteFile;

method := "GET";

requestUri := Replace(Replace(Replace(Replace(
                        "{storageAccount}", storageAccount),
                        "{containerName}", containerName),
                        "{blobName}", blobName),
                        "{sasToken}", sasToken);

oWebService := WebServices{};
oClient := oWebService:CreateHttpClient();
oRequest := oClient:CreateHttpRequest(requestUri);

oRequest:Method := method;
oRequest:ContentType := "text/plain; charset=UTF-8";
resp := oClient:GetResponse(oRequest);
sTmpFileName := GlbDefaultTempDirectory + CreateGuid() + ".tmp";
:RETURN sTmpFileName;


Step 3- use it

As simple as that, you got yourself an upload and download to azure containers.


As you can see, as usual, this was quite easy! One just needs the correct information. Next step will be to see what more can containers bring to your STARLIMS installation.

Hope this can come in handy sometime to someone!

Watermark your PDF in STARLIMS

I was working with the team on some reports requirements, and we started to get some requests for Watermarks on reports. Some of the requests were to get the same report with a watermark: same time stamp, same data, same printed by, etc.

One option would have been to have the Crystal reports template to support watermarks (using parameters for example), but then it meant implementing the support in every template.

After thinking about it, I thought “Heh! We always print from server, using PDF! There must be some way to put a watermark on a PDF, right?


Easy said, but not easily done. But I recalled that Abbott Informatics is providing a PDFSharp.dll in the bin folder of the application folder. The dlls in there are typically used by the server runtime and not necessarily accessed by user code… But I did some research, and it should be possible to use that DLL to do exactly what I wanted!

STARLIMS has a few neat functions like LimsNetConnect() and LimsNetCast() which allows us to use DLL directly.

So I started by trying to load a PDF:

document := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Pdf.IO.PdfReader",, .T.):Open(sPDF);

Unfortunately, PDFSharp.dll is not loaded/accessible directly by the server side scripting, so I got an error.

Next step: copy the DLL to the Components directory!

Try again: success!

Finally, all I had to do is convert c# code to STARLIMS Scripting Language code (SSL) and magic happened!

Here’s the final code below.

Parameters are the “input” PDF file and the Watermark Text. Returns the Watermarked PDF.

:PARAMETERS sPDF, sWatermark;
:DEFAULT sPDF, "c:\temp\TestWatermark.pdf";
:DEFAULT sWatermark, "COPY";
:DECLARE sOut, sWatermark;
:DECLARE gfx, prependOption, document, page, font, size, format, brush, color, 
math, width, height, ratio;

/* Define the output file name. For now, let's just insert _Watermarked at the end ;
sOut:= Left(sPDF, Rat(".", sPDF) -1) + "_Watermarked.PDF";

/* We will need to do math to rotate the text, so let's get ready!;
math := LimsNetConnect("", "System.Math",, .T.);

/* LimsNetCast allows us to get a value from an enum. That's about the simplest way to get to this;
prependOption := LimsNetCast("Prepend", "enum:PdfSharp.Drawing.XGraphicsPdfPageOptions");
fontOption := LimsNetCast("BoldItalic", "enum:PdfSharp.Drawing.XFontStyle");
nearOption := LimsNetCast("Near", "enum:PdfSharp.Drawing.XStringAlignment");

/* create necessary objects to get started, like the document, the font of the watermark, and the color;
document := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Pdf.IO.PdfReader",, .T.):Open(sPDF);
font := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Drawing.XFont", {"Times New Roman", 100, fontOption});
color := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Drawing.XColor",, .T.):FromArgb(64, 0, 0, 0);

/* then generate the watermark for every pages! ;
:FOR i:=1 :TO document:Pages:Count;

	page := document:Pages[i - 1];

    /* graphic canvas will be the page, and we will put the watermark "under" the text (prepend);
	gfx := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Drawing.XGraphics",,.T.):FromPdfPage(page, prependOption);
	size := gfx:MeasureString(sWatermark, font);
	width := page:Width:Value;
	height := page:Height:Value;
	ratio := width / height;

    /* Trigonometry anyone? This is to rotate our text;
	gfx:TranslateTransform(width/2, height/2);
	gfx:RotateTransform(-math:Atan(ratio) * 180 / math:PI);
	gfx:TranslateTransform(-width/2, -height/ 2);

    /* Create a string format ;
        format := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Drawing.XStringFormat");
        format:Alignment = nearOption;
        format:LineAlignment = nearOption;

    /* Create a dimmed red brush ;
        brush := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Drawing.XSolidBrush", { color });

	point := LimsNetConnect("PDFSharp.dll", "PdfSharp.Drawing.XPoint", { (width - size:Width) / 2, (height - size:Height) / 2});
    /* Draw the string on page; 
        gfx:DrawString(sWatermark, font, brush, point, format);

/* that's it, we save! ;


Turns out this is quite fast! If needed, you could then expose this script as a web service (REST anyone?) and you turn your STARLIMS into a PDF Watermark Service.

Uh. What a great idea I just got here 🙂

STARLIMS Data Connector v1 Released

Finally, I think it works! You can go to google data studio and create a STARLIMS Data Source!

Search for STARLIMS; if I got it right, it should come out in the partner section.

Follow the instructions, and you should be able to get it running!

A few things to note:

  1. the predefined queries work, except for COC, which I kind of ditched for now.
  2. the QBE work! Note that I don’t (yet) apply the default QBE filters, so don’t just go and pull up all your data. That will be hard on all servers.
  3. You can create many connections; so you technically could create one for Folders, one for Samples, one for Results, one for your favourite QBE, one for your products, etc… And blend all of them! Magical!
  4. Finally, and most importantly: I – do – not – cache – the – data. Not yet. I will eventually look at doing that, but not now. Therefore, each time you run this, you actually query the database server. Be careful.
  5. I do this on my own time for fun. It’s just fun. Good if it helps you, but don’t hold me responsible if you mis-use this!

That’s it for now! Remember, this is a project for fun! Contact me if you want to know more, of if you wish me to consider adding features to this.



STARLIMS + Google Data Connector = lazy lab data

Yup; almost a full year without a post: shame on me. But here I am, with something cool for you STARLIMS users/developers/adminstrators!

Recently, I was looking for a good reporting tool – thinking to replace SAP’s Crystal Reports – and somehow stumbled upon Google Data. Google Data is kind of a mix in between Microsoft Power BI, Tableau, QLik and any and all Data visualization/analytics/findagoodbuzzword tools.

… Except it is free. Kind of.

DISCLAIMER: This project is in progress and I do this on my free time at home. I do not want to release the google script code just yet, but I do want to share progress and see where it takes me. Please contact me directly if you wish to know more and want to use this. Right now, this is closer to prototype than anything else.

There are good tutorials on writing your own Data Connectors. Google is really working hard to get developers on board. Of course, since this is not a very well known tool yet, it is still quite tricky to get going, even when following the said tutorials.

But chances are that if you read this, you know me. And you know this is the kind of things that intrigues me. Challenge! New playground! Undiscovered lands! So here I am: I have given it a try, and I will share my work here. Freely. Eventually, who knows; maybe someone somewhere will use it!


Given the nature of STARLIMS, you can kind of reverse-engineer the code so I will, aside from giving you here a (somewhat) working solution, explain what I have done and share the connector’s code so you can make it better.

To know more about STARLIMS, visit their web site:

To learn how to build your own Google Data Connector, head to

That’s where I started.

Google Data Connector

Now, what’s behind a Google Data Connector? Basically, there are 4 functions really:

  1. Authentication. For STARLIMS, I am using the Username and Password approach. I pass these in headers, so if your connection is secured (HTTPS) then you’re good. If you use normal STARLIMS authentication, then this will work for you. Where I work, we use AD, and it works fine too.
  2. getSchema. This is critical – we need to provide the connector, at the beginning, the full schema of the data. Given the size of STARLIMS, I am opting for either
    1. Predefined entities (Folders, Orders, Ordtask or COC)
    2. QBE Templates (code-based)

I think I can manage the schemas from these quite easily. I need to know field names, labels and types, whether they are measures or dimensions; that’s it.

3. getData. This is tricky. This will pass a sub-set of the required fields, and the data must match the subset of these fields. It can be done, but one needs to create the right SQL statements based on the schema.

4. getConfig. This ties everything together. The way I built it is to define the URL of your connection (aka STARLIMS URL) and whether you will use a specific QBE or a predefined entity. When you first create a connection, it will require username and password. I am not storing these, google is; it is up to you then to decide if you trust google or not with the data…

And that’s it, really! This is the kind of charts you can do in a few clicks:

Of course, these are very simple / silly examples. But it is to show that you can create viz easily, and good looking ones at that!

My idea / goal is to extend my connector and code so you could create dynamic dashboards on your STARLIMS Data using existing QBE templates you spent hours / days to optimize and clean. I think this will be definitively worth it.

You can get started here. I will update the STARLIMS Code and enhance the connector. For now, all I do is a simple query on FOLDERS and ORDTASK to kind of have a proof of concept; it actually works quite well!

Let’s see where this gets me in the future!



P.S. Remember: this is work in progress and not production-ready!

Identify Server Script Performance Bottlenecks

This week was Abbott Informatics’ APAC Forum. Speaking with old colleagues, I got inspired to try to revive this site for the 4th time (or is it the 5th?).

I’m currently sitting in a performance enhancement session and thinking to myself: heh, that’s NOT how I would go about it (sorry guys!). Silver bullets? Nah.

The first step to improving performances is to identify what is slow (duh!). What are the bottleneck? Why is it slow?

As a STARLIMS developer, I know that oftentimes, the code written in there is not necessarily the most efficient one. Therefore, why not start by monitoring the performances of, let’s say, SSL scripts, which represent the backbone of the business layer?

I’m thinking: why not have a simple tool that will record, like a stop watch, all block of code execution time, and then provide a report I can read? Heck, .NET has a StopWatch class! Hey! STARLIMS IS .Net!

The more I think about it, the more I consider: let’s do it!

How do we do this?

First, let’s create a class. I like classes. I like object-oriented code. I like the way it looks in SSL afterward, and it makes it way easier to scale through inheritance later on. Question is: what should the class do?

Well, thinking out loud, I think I want it to do is something like this:

  1. Start the stop watch
  2. Do something
  3. Monitor event 1
  4. Do something
  5. Monitor event 2
  6. Do something else
  7. Monitor event x
  8. so on and so forth
  9. Provide a readable report of all the event duration

I also want it to count the number of time an event run, and I want to know the AVERAGE time gone in there as well as the TOTAL time this event took.

Now that I know what I want, let’s write the class that will do it (for the sake of this example, I created it in the Utility global SSL category).

:CLASS perfMonitor;

:DECLARE oStopWatch;
:DECLARE nLastCheck;
:DECLARE aEvents;
:DECLARE WriteToLog;

:PROCEDURE Constructor;
:DEFAULT bAutoStart, .T.;
Me:WriteToLog := .F.;
Me:nLastCheck := 0;
Me:aEvents := { {"Event", "Total Duration", "# of calls", "Avg Duration"} };
Me:oStopWatch := LimsNetConnect("System", "System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch");
:IF bAutoStart;
Me:WriteToLog := .T.;

:DEFAULT sMessage, "";
:DECLARE nElapsed, nDuration, i, bNew;
:IF Me:oStopWatch:IsRunning;
	nElapsed := Me:oStopWatch:ElapsedMilliseconds;
	nDuration := nElapsed - Me:nLastCheck;
	:IF Me:WriteToLog;
		UsrMes("Performance Monitor ==> " + LimsString(nDuration) + " ms. Message: " + sMessage);
	Me:nLastCheck := nElapsed;
	bNew := .T.;
	:FOR i := 1 :TO Len(Me:aEvents);
		:IF Me:aEvents[i][1] == sMessage;
			Me:aEvents[i][2] += nDuration;
			Me:aEvents[i][3] += 1;
			Me:aEvents[i][4] := Me:aEvents[i][2] / Me:aEvents[i][3];
			bNew := .F.;
	:IF bNew;
		aAdd(Me:aEvents, { sMessage, nDuration, 1, nDuration });

Me:Monitor("Internal Restart");

Me:Monitor("Internal Stop");

Me:Monitor("Internal Start");

:RETURN BuildString2(Me:aEvents, CRLF, "	");

The above gives us an object we can start, restart, and monitor events (messages). At the end, we use typical ToString() and will have our “report”. Example of using this:

:DECLARE oPerformanceMonitor;
oPerformanceMonitor := CreateUdObject("SGS_Utility.perfMonitor");
lWait(1.3); /* fake doing something that takes time;
oPerformanceMonitor:Monitor('Step 1');
lWait(0.8); /* fake doing something that takes time;
oPerformanceMonitor:Monitor('Step 2');
lWait(1.1); /* fake doing something that takes time;
oPerformanceMonitor:Monitor('Step 3');
lWait(1.45); /* call Step 1 again to generate an aggregate;
oPerformanceMonitor:Monitor('Step 1');
:RETURN oPerformanceMonitor:ToString();

If I run the above, the output will look like

Event	Total Duration	# of calls	Avg Duration
Step 1	2025	2	1012.5
Step 2	1015	1	1015
Step 3	1011	1	1011

I have been using this in many places in our system and it did help me to find the best places to optimize our code. Sometimes, the same insert will run 500 times and will total up to 15 seconds; that is worse than one call that runs only once and take 3 seconds (at least for the end user).

I hope this can help you find the bottlenecks of your SSL code!